The longest and deepest downturn in the history of the United States and the modern industrial economy lasted more than a decade, beginning in 1929 and ending during World War II in 1941.
Roosevelt’s Gold Program
The controversial and consequential policies of FDR regarding gold and dollars
Emergency Banking Act
The 1933 law was aimed at restoring public confidence in the nation’s financial system
Emergency Lending to Nonbank Borrowers
The Emergency Relief and Construction Act of 1932 expanded the Fed's ability to make certain loans under "unusual and exigent circumstances."
Banking Act of 1932
The Banking Act of 1932 reformed the Federal Reserve’s role providing credit during economic downturns.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act
During the years 1932 and 1933, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation effectively served as the discount lending arm of the Federal Reserve Board.
Banking Panics of 1931-33
Earlier regional banking panics turned into a nationwide financial crisis in fall 1931
Banking Panics of 1930-31
The U.S. appeared to be poised for economic recovery when a series of bank panics began in fall 1930