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The worst downturn in U.S. history lasted from 1929 to 1941
The longest and deepest downturn in the history of the United States and the modern industrial economy lasted more than a decade, beginning in 1929 and ending during World War II in 1941.

America’s third-worst downturn of the 20th century
Recession of 1937-38

America’s third-worst downturn of the 20th century

This legislation restructured the Fed in both cosmetic and consequential ways
Banking Act of 1935

This legislation restructured the Fed in both cosmetic and consequential ways

The 1934 law was the culmination of FDR’s controversial gold program
Gold Reserve Act

The 1934 law was the culmination of FDR’s controversial gold program

Commonly called Glass-Steagall, the Act was widely debated before its enactment
Banking Act of 1933

Commonly called Glass-Steagall, the Act was widely debated before its enactment

The controversial and consequential policies of FDR regarding gold and dollars
Roosevelt’s Gold Program

The controversial and consequential policies of FDR regarding gold and dollars

The 1933 law was aimed at restoring public confidence in the nation’s financial system
Emergency Banking Act

The 1933 law was aimed at restoring public confidence in the nation’s financial system

For an entire week in March 1933, all banking transactions were suspended
Bank Holiday of 1933

For an entire week in March 1933, all banking transactions were suspended

Two laws were enacted in 1932 to address concerns about the Fed’s structure and mission
Banking Acts of 1932

Two laws were enacted in 1932 to address concerns about the Fed’s structure and mission

Earlier regional banking panics turned into a nationwide financial crisis in fall 1931
Banking Panics of 1931-33

Earlier regional banking panics turned into a nationwide financial crisis in fall 1931

The U.S. appeared to be poised for economic recovery when a series of bank panics began in fall 1930
Banking Panics of 1930-31

The U.S. appeared to be poised for economic recovery when a series of bank panics began in fall 1930

On October 28, 1929, the Dow declined nearly 13 percent
Crash of 1929

On October 28, 1929, the Dow declined nearly 13 percent