The Website contains biographies of key individuals and articles about major events that occurred throughout the Federal Reserve System’s history. The views expressed in these articles are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Federal Reserve System. Affiliations listed for authors are as of the time that the content was written and may have since changed.
The Federal Reserve System takes reasonable measures to ensure the quality of the information made available on this Website. The Federal Reserve System may periodically update the information but makes no commitment to do so. Any conclusions that users draw from the information presented here are theirs and are not to be attributed to any Federal Reserve Bank or the Board. The views expressed on this Website may not necessarily reflect the views of any Federal Reserve Bank or the Board.
The Website may provide relevant links to websites outside of the Federal Reserve Banks and the Board (hereafter "External Websites") as additional resources for users. External Websites may also link to this Website and are not under the control of the Federal Reserve Banks or the Board. External Websites may contain material that is protected under copyright or other laws with restrictions on use. Neither the Federal Reserve Banks nor the Board make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any liability or responsibility for any information that is available on any External Websites. Neither the presence of links to External Websites nor any External Website’s inclusion of links to this Website imply that any Federal Reserve Bank or the Board sponsors, endorses, recommends or approves of the External Websites. Neither do such links imply that any Federal Reserve Bank or the Board sponsors, endorses, recommends, or approves of the entities or organizations managing the External Websites, any views expressed on the External Websites, or any products or services offered.
Neither the Federal Reserve Banks nor the Board warrants that any information contained on this Website does not defame any individual or entity, or infringe upon any individual's or entity's rights of privacy or publicity.
NEITHER THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS NOR THE BOARD PROVIDES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, TITLE, QUALITY, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY INFORMATION ON THIS WEBSITE. ALL INFORMATION, DATA, AND MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. NEITHER THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS NOR THE BOARD SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT OR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY OTHER KIND OF DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF INFORMATION, OR ATTORNEYS' FEES) THAT ARE IN ANY WAY DUE TO, RESULTING FROM, OR ARISING IN CONNECTION WITH, THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THIS WEBSITE, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER A FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OR THE BOARD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE, INCLUDING LIABILITY FOR ANY VIRUSES, WHICH MIGHT INFECT A USER'S COMPUTER SYSTEM.
This Website is controlled and operated by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis from its office in the United States of America. By accessing this Website you acknowledge and agree that this Website will only be construed and evaluated according to the laws of the United States. If you use this Website from a location outside of the United States, you are responsible for compliance with any and all applicable laws of that or any other applicable location.
This Website contains copyrighted material, trademarked material, and other proprietary information, including but not limited to text, software, graphics, logos, and button icons that are the property of the Federal Reserve Banks, the Board, or third parties. Users may not reproduce, modify, publish, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, create derivative works from, or in any way exploit any of the content, in whole or in part, of any copyrighted, trademarked, or proprietary information owned by a Federal Reserve Bank, the Board, or third parties, except as expressly authorized by the Federal Reserve Banks, the Board, or the third parties. Neither the Federal Reserve Banks nor the Board can grant permission to use copyrighted material, trademarked material, or other proprietary information owned by third parties.
Any unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, to defeat or circumvent security measures, or to utilize this Website for reasons other than its intended purposes are prohibited.
The Federal Reserve Banks do not permit the use of their names, including references to the Federal Reserve System or the Board, in advertising, as an endorsement for any product or service, or for any other commercial purpose.
External entities may link to this Website without obtaining written permission, provided the following requirements are complied with:
- The entity linking to this Website must not create a frame or a border environment around this Website.
- The entity linking to this Website must clearly indicate that the link is an external or offsite link, and is not part of the external Website.
- The entity linking does not represent that any association or affiliation with any Federal Reserve Bank, the Federal Reserve System, or the Board exists.
- The entity does not state or imply any sponsorship or endorsement of the entity, its website or its products or services by any Federal Reserve Bank, the Federal Reserve System, or the Board;
- For searching purposes, the entity linking to this Website must specifically refer to it by its full name, "Federal Reserve History."
- The entity linking to this Website must not use any Federal Reserve History logos, graphics, images, video, or sound for any purpose without written permission.
By including a link on its website, an external entity agrees that upon request by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis at any time, for any reason, the entity shall immediately remove the link from its website.
Trademark and Service Mark Notices
The following are marks owned by one or more of the Federal Reserve Banks:
- The Centennial Logo is a registered trademark of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
The following are marks of companies not affiliated with the Federal Reserve Banks:
- Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo, Distiller, PostScript, and the PostScript logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the U.S. and/or other countries.
- Microsoft, Encarta, MSN, Sharepoint, Internet Explorer, and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
Other referenced product names and company names may be either trademarks or service marks of their respective companies.
The Federal Reserve System undertakes to comply with all relevant copyright laws, and does not permit copyright infringing activities or infringement of intellectual property rights on its websites. The Federal Reserve System will review all claims of copyright infringement received and will remove content deemed to have been posted or distributed in violation of any such law.
If you have any complaints or objections to content posted on this Website because it was not properly credited, or it was posted without permission and you are the copyright owner, please contact us and provide your contact information and a link to the relevant content.
Reference to Third Parties and Third Parties' Products and Services
The Federal Reserve System does not sponsor, endorse, or recommend any third party or any third party products or services used on or by this Website, or referenced on or by this Website.
Consent to Monitoring
We monitor this Website for unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, to defeat or circumvent security measures, and to utilize this Website for purposes other than those intended. By using this Website you expressly consent to such monitoring and you are advised that if such monitoring reveals possible evidence of criminal activity, we will provide the evidence of such monitoring to law enforcement officials.
We are committed to making this Website accessible to all users and to ensure that it meets or exceeds the requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.
Many of the documents on our Website are in HTML and are usually accessible to screen-reading software. We also have a large number of documents in Adobe® Acrobat® Portable Document Format (.pdf or PDF) and PostScript (.ps), types that reproduce the exact look of a printed page. PDF documents are displayed through Adobe Reader®, but may require the user to take additional steps in order to make the documents accessible to screen readers. PostScript files can be saved electronically and sent directly to a printer.
When documents are provided in multiple formats, at least one version is designed to be accessible to users of assistive technology.
- Generally, HTML and plain text documents are accessible through the Website.
- PDF documents are accessible through Adobe Reader, which can be downloaded for free.
If you are seeking a document on this Website that is not accessible to you, or would like to obtain a paper copy of the document, you may submit a request by email to contact us.